Functional Programming extensions to C++ for ROS projects.
Chaining monadic functions

In this tutorial you'll learn to chain the result of functions that return a Result<T> into a result.

Example Functions

Here are two example functions for use in this tutorial.

Result<int> convert_small_values(double x) {
if (x > 10.0)
return tl::make_unexpected(fp::OutOfRange(fp::format("{} > 10", x)));
return static_cast<int>(x);
Result<double> square_positive(double x) {
if (x < 0)
return tl::make_unexpected(fp::OutOfRange(fp::format("{} < 0", x)));
return x * x;

The monadic bind function

This library contains a function that enables you to chain calls together. It does this by taking an input Result<T1> and a function that takes an argument of type T1 and returns a result of the type Result<T2> where that is the return type of the function.

mbind : (Result<T1>, T1 → Result<T2>) → Result<T2>

If the passed in Result<T1> is an error it stores that error in the return type Result<T2>. If the passed in Result<T1> contains a value it calls the function that you passed in and returns it's result. Here is an example of how you could use it to call the two example functions.

auto const result
fp::mbind(fp::make_result(2), square_positive),

This will first calculate the result of square_positive(2) and then the result of that (if successful) will be sent to the second function convert_small_values.

The operator| overload

This syntax is rather cumbersome so we have implemented an overload for the operator| that makes it using it much nicer. This creates syntax that resembles the shell pipe syntax where one operation is chained into the next if it succeeds.

auto const result = fp::make_result(2) | square_positive | convert_small_values;

Aternatively you can call the first function instead of using the fp::make_result function.

auto const result = square_positive(2) | convert_small_values;

The FP extensions from tl::expected

Because the Result<T> type is just an alias for tl::expected<T, Error> you can use the interface of tl::expected<T, E> to chain calls. The five functions are:

Function Description
has_value Returns whether or not *this is in the expected state.
value_or If *this is in the expected state, returns the expected value. Otherwise returns u.
and_then Used to compose functions which return a tl::expected. If *this is in the expected state, applies f to the expected value and returns the result. Otherwise returns *this (i.e. the unexpected value bubbles up). Requires: Calling the given function with the expected value must return a specialization of tl::expected.
map Apply a function to change the expected value (and possibly the type). If *this is in the expected state, applies f to the expected value and returns the result wrapped in a tl::expected<ResultType, E>. Otherwise returns *this (i.e. the unexpected value bubbles up).
transform Alias for map.
map_error Apply a function to change the unexpected value (and possibly the type). If *this is in the unexpected state, applies f to the unexpected value and returns the result wrapped in a tl::expected<T, ResultType>. Otherwise returns *this (i.e. the expected value bubbles up).
or_else If *this is in the unexpected state, calls f(this->error()) and returns the result. Otherwise returns *this. Requires: std::invoke_result_t<F> must be void or convertible to tl::expected<T,E>.

See the full API documentation for these functions here.

An example of using and_then to do the same thing as above.

auto const result = square_positive(2).and_then(convert_small_values);

Composing monadic function

A final thing that you might want to do is construct a function that combines calling various functions in sequence. To make this easier we've implemented the mcompose function that takes n number of functions that chain together and constructs a function that represents the result of calling them in order.

auto constexpr launch_satelite = mcompose(

Then later you could use this function like this:

auto const result = launch_satelite(SpaceCamera{});


In this tutorial we learned how to chain calls to functions that can fail and how we can chain those functions into a resulting function we could call.

Next Tutorial

Tools for Validating

constexpr Result< T, E > make_result(T value)
Makes a Result<T> from a T value.
Definition: result.hpp:199
constexpr auto OutOfRange
Definition: result.hpp:113
constexpr auto mcompose(F f, G g)
Monadic compose two monad functions.
Definition: monad.hpp:128
constexpr auto mbind(const std::optional< T > &opt, F f) -> decltype(f(opt.value()))
Monad optional bind.
Definition: monad.hpp:63